Kent Flag

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BEST FLAG

The flag of Kent was included on the registry from its inception. The design of a white horse rearing on its hind legs has been associated with the county for at least four centuries, whilst the common origin story pushes it back over a thousand years. Tradition holds that the first Germanic invaders in Britain were Jutish mercenaries from the Danish peninsula, led by brothers Hengist and Horsa: the pair appear in the 9th century work on the history of the English people, “Historia Ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum” by the Venerable Bede; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; the 9th century work attributed to the Welsh Monk Nennius, “Historia Brittonum” and Geoffrey of Monmouth’s 12th century “Historia Regum Brittaniae”. All these works of course were completed centuries after the events they describe and the two brothers may well have been legendary, the theme of twin brothers appears frequently in Germanic stories as recorded by classical writers and additionally the horse was an important element in the rituals of many ancient peoples, with names derived from the words for horse appearing frequently – the Old English words “Hengest”and “Horsa” meant respectively, “stallion” and “horse”. Conceivably, these founding fathers may in fact have been just the one individual, which is suggested by the similarity of these two names with equine associations. Reflecting all these characteristics, these Jutish invaders were said to have borne a banner bearing a white horse and it is further speculated that the symbol may have referred to the mythical horse Sleipner, which belonged to the god Odin, venerated by these Germanic warriors. The story of Hengist and Horsa further relates that the latter was killed in battle with the Celtic leader Vortigern at Aylesford, where a monument was raised in his honour, the White Horse Stone

inga

near Maidstone. This standing stone is considered by some visitors to resemble a horse’s head. Apparently the site has also been known locally as “The Ingá stone”, which presumably could be a corruption of the name “Hengist”?

An alternative school of thought postulates that the white horse of Kent is actually derived from the ancient white horses cut into chalk downs and stamped on the coins of more than one pre-Roman British king; these

are from the reign of Dubnovellaunus of the Cantii or Cantiacci tribe, from whom the name of Kent derives, from c. 30 to 10 BC

coin.png

However forged though, the link between the emblem of a white horse and the county of Kent was demonstrably established by the seventeenth century.

As with Essex, the emblem of this early English kingdom was first recorded in print in the 1605 work “Restitution of Decayed Antiquities”

rest.jpg

by Richard Verstegen which included an engraving of Hengist and Horsa landing in Kent in 449 under the banner of a rampant white horse.

VERSTEGEN

It is worth noting that the illustration specifically shows a flag bearing a horse rather than a shield, the inference is clear that the invading force specifically used a flag with the horse emblem on it and lends an obvious historical legitimacy to the horse bearing flag of Kent.

John Speed subsequently included the white horse in his 1611 “Atlas of Great Britaine”, appearing twice on a red shield, once held by “Hengist”

SPEED 1

and here on a blue shieldSPEED 2

Although it has been suggested that the white horse was subsequently used by the Justices of Kent for many years, no evidence of such usage has yet come to light. Evidently however, the white horse came to be generally regarded as the emblem of the former kingdom, turned county. Its next appearance in connection with the county was on the masthead of the county newspaper, the Kentish Post, which began to feature it from 1726.

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The horse was then adopted by the Kent Insurance Company in 1802 for its fire plate emblem

9-Kent-Insurance-Fire-Mark-1802

and it also appeared at its Canterbury headquarters

kent fire ins

William Berry’s 1830 “Pedigrees Of The Families of The County Of Kent” also featured the rearing stallion on its cover

Berry.png and it made a resplendent appearance on Thomas Moule’s 1836 map of the county

Further 19th century examples of the emblem’s association with the county are found on the sacks, “pockets”, used by Kentish hop pickers

Hop picking Yalding Kent

and its usage by the Rochester based firm Aveling and Porter, producer of agricultural engines and steam rollers, which bore the white horse of Kent at the front of the vehicles

a and p

The white horse is further included this array

located at the Crossness Pumping Station, in Bexley in the county, completed in 1865. The emblem of the Metropolitan Board of Works, which built the station, it incorporates various arms and emblems including the three seaxes of Middlesex, indicating the board’s territorial remit encompassing areas from these counties.

Another example of the white horse is found at the Chapel Corridor of Ightham Mote country house, in the county, amongst some stained glass panels depicting coats of arms

Ightham 1 (2)

including one attributed to the Jutish kingdom of Kent’s celebrated king, Ethelbert

Ightham 2 (2)

Ightham 3 (2)

The white horse is also present on the insignia

of the company operating rail services in the county.

Surprisingly, although also established in the nineteenth century, in 1889, Kent County Council did not receive a formal grant of arms depicting the acknowledged county emblem  KENT CC ARMS

until 1933, on 17 October. The blazon of the shield, “gules, a horse rampant argent” i.e. red with a white rearing horse, is one of the simpler heraldic descriptions. The motto used on the council arms, “Invicta”, also seen included in the railway company’s emblem, above, means ‘unconquered’, in Latin and refers to a local legend which holds that in 1067, shortly after the Norman Conquest, a detachment of Kentishmen ambushed the newly crowned King William; in return for his life, he promised that the county would be able to keep its ancient privileges, the “Treaty of Swanscombe”, thus Kent was the only part of England deemed “unconquered” by the Normans. This motto is thus also a popular theme in the county and the county flag is accordingly sometimes referred to as the Invicta Flag or Invicta Flag of Kent. The defiant rearing stance of the horse lends itself naturally to the description, invicta!

INVCITA PLAQUE (2)

Several of these examples of nineteenth century usage, were originally identified by James Lloyd in his 2017 work “The Saxon Steed And The White Horse Of Kent” in volume 158 of “Archaeologia Cantiana” the journal of the Kent Archaeological Society.

Having been in the public domain long before the creation of the council and generally acknowledged as representing the whole county as an entity in itself, as demonstrated for example, by its appearance on the Moule map, such long recognised arms and an armorial banner formed from them, could not be restricted to the council’s use but represented the whole county as an entity in itself. In the twenty-first century therefore, the Flag Institute accepted that an armorial banner was the county flag, on the basis of this traditional association and use. The display of the white stallion as a flag appears to have begun with Kent Cricket Club, as revealed by James Lloyd, who details that Lord Harris, founding captain of the club in 1870, was, in 1931 (61 years later!) chairman of the council body tasked with securing it formal arms. From his experience with the flag at the cricket club, Harris prevailed on the choice of red for the council’s arms, which he asserted was more visible when the weather was inclement. In 1936, James Lloyd writes, the cricket club’s flag was used to represent Kent at an inter-county chess competition; county identities are often most egregious in the form of cricket clubs (!), a notion somewhat borne out by further records cited by James Lloyd, held in the Kent History And Library Centre, suggesting that even in 1952, the red flag bearing a white stallion was regarded as the cricket club’s flag, i.e. not the general flag of the county of Kent. However, whoever entertained this misapprehension was clearly not aware of the flag’s wartime deployment.

Kent’s trenchant association with the white horse was further solidified with its usage during World War II by the RAF’s “County of Kent” Squadron, No. 131. Kent was the only county to have had a squadron of its own as a result of large donations made by the people of Kent. The full story of the squadron can be found here. Inspired by the Maidstone based Lord Cornwallis, large funds were amassed to purchase a number of Spitfires. Acknowledging the donations Lord Cornwallis spoke of “…blessing and protection for these glorious men who are riding on the wings of the White Horse of Kent”

spirit

Lord Cornwallis presented two flags to the squadron, one bearing the motto “Invicta” and the other, the white horse of Kent.

Kent Squad 2 (2)

Kent Squad 3 (2)

Whilst it is an appealing and romantic notion that Jutes arrived on the shore of Kent brandishing a white stallion over their heads, as Richard Vestegan so charmingly depicts, the truth is that there are no grounds to support the tale. In the aforementioned work , James Lloyd has categorically put this account to bed. A a rampant white horse remains the arms of several continental territories that are broadly the locality whence the Jutes sprang, these include;

Lower Saxony, Germany

LOW.SAX

North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

WESTPHAL

Twente, Netherlands

TWENTE

In fact to this day the heraldic motif of the “Saxon Steed” is a recognised trait in German civic heraldry which originated in the continental “Duchy of Saxony”. It is said that it originates either from the white horse reputedly ridden by the Saxon leader Widukind after his baptism – formerly he had ridden a black one – or again, as a representation of Odin’s horse Sleipnir. It is interesting, if not a little remarkable, that two of the figures noted as founders of the English nation, Hengist and Horsa are commemorated in a local house building tradition. A common decorative feature on the roofs of farmhouses in the states of Lower Saxony and  Schleswig-Holstein are gables shaped as horse heads which, it is reported, as late as 1875 were apparently referred to as “Hengist and Hors”

GABLES

This does tend to suggest that “Hengist and Horsa” may have been the subjects of an ancient Germanic tradition – horse shaped or horse associated figures, possibly the remnants of some religious rite, which would have been carried with the invaders over the sea to Kent. It also lends credence to the idea that the symbol of the horse would have made the journey with the Jutish warriors – this is all highly speculative of course but if accepted, Kent’s flag can be seen as vying with the dragon/wyvern banners of Somerset and Wessex, Cornwall’s white cross and Northumberland’s yellow and red bands, as the oldest of the symbols to appear on our county flags.

The “Saxon Steed” was later incorporated into its arms

WELF

by the House of Welf or Guelph, amongst whose members was the Elector of Hanover, Georg Ludwig, who acceded to the British throne in 1714 as George I. Upon his enthronement the Royal British coat of arms was altered to accommodate the Hanoverian arms

HANOVERARMS

including the “Saxon Steed” which seemingly shared an origin with the emblem of the county of Kent. The reported ancient Jutish symbol, had thus reappeared in Britain as the symbol of a national leader! Perhaps the accommodation of the Hanoverian arms was easily effected because the white horse emblem was a Germanic symbol already well accepted in England?

A red flag bearing a white horse

HANOVERFLAG

seems to have been used in an unofficial capacity to represent Hanover until 1837 and the recognition of the symbol is demonstrated by a bronze statue in Hanover city

HANOVERNAG

It is interesting to note also that the white horse, whether in Kent or on the continent, is predominantly shown against a red background although one illustration on the Speed map suggests that there was no fixed colour for the background until more recent times. It has been reported that some 19th century versions of the Kent arms even occasionally included a green strip of turf below, as well as with a blue background.

 

 

Another consideration is that whilst the modern depiction of the horse is “rampant”, that is, rearing on one hind leg, earlier versions showed the horse as “forcené” meaning rearing naturally on its hind legs as in the above image of the statue, or even occasionally as “courant” or running – the depiction on the above Hanover flag.

 

 

 

The arms awarded to Kent county council in 1933 were reconfirmed for the successor administration, whose remit does not cover the full extent of the county. In addition to its official arms, the modern council uses a simplified logo derived from them

LOGO

The white horse also appears on the civic coats of arms of many of the county’s towns and cities, either as a charge on the main shield, as part of the crest over the shield or as a supporter, including;

ashfordbeckenhambexley

Ashford                                   Beckenham                                        Bexley

bromleydartforddeptford

Bromley                                      Dartford                                       Deptford

dovergraveshamlewisham

Dover                                      Gravesham                                   Lewisham

maidstone medway  sevenoaks

Maidstone                                   Medway                                  Sevenoaks

swaletonbridgetunbridge-wells

Swale                                     Tonbridge                           Tunbridge Wells

A white horse is the main charge on the coat of arms of the University of Kent

KENT UNI

and it appears on the badge of Kent Fire and Rescue Service.

KENT FIRE

and Kent Police

KENT POLICE

as well as on the official arms of the High Sheriff of Kent

high-sheriff-2

Unsurprisingly the white horse is also found on the arms of the Kent County Society

kent-county-society-association-of-men-of-kent-kentish-men-kent-county-society-2

Several Kentish sporting bodies also include the white horse on their badges such as Kent County Cricket club

KENT CRICKET

The county’s famed white stallion is also the insignia

kent-kings

of Sittingbourne based Kent Kings speedway team

Another notable appearance of the Kent emblem is on a plaque alongside one bearing the Sussex martlets

kentsussex

which are today on the wall of a school in Tunbridge Wells on the Kent/Sussex border,

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but were formerly to be found on the Kent and Sussex Hospital

kent-and-sussex-hospital

which occupied the site previously and served both counties.

Others curiously opt to display the white horse against a blue background including Kent Football Association, Kent County Football League and Kent Rugby Football Union.

kent-blue

Kent football club Gillingham, previously displayed the white horse alone, also against a blue background but now includes it as one element on its badge.

GILLS

The county symbol also appears on the badges of many other Kent clubs, examples of these can be seen on this page.

In the late twentieth century, coach firm Invictaway, which ran London bound commuter coaches from the county, cleverly combined the popular Kentish Invicta motto in its name with the white horse emblem in its logo

 INVICTAWAY

Whilst ‘White Horse’ is not an uncommon name amongst British pubs, in Kent, where it carries a greater significance it is particularly popular! Some examples are in

Cranbrook, Bridge and, Dover;

PUBSBearstead, Borstal, Boughton and Chilham;

Edenbridge, Faversham, Headcorn and Rainham;

Sundridge , Otham

and Hawkinge;

with another in Bilsington which makes a particular highlight of the county emblem

Kent’s treasured emblem is also frequently found atop village signs in the county, over simple white, name signs

Stanford.png

and more elaborate pictorial devices

 

and occasionally where the horse is present without the red background

And the county’s rearing horse is also commonly found as a decorative feature on its typical Oast Houses, although seemingly, for ease of visibility, these are black in colour!

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The continuing recognition and popularity of the white horse as the symbol of Kent is demonstrated by the presence of a large white horse design cut into the hillside overlooking the town of Folkestone and the English terminal of the Channel Tunnel

FOLKESTONE

, which was completed in June 2003. The horse was planned as a Millennium landmark and designed by a local artist, Charlie Newington. Similarly, but on a much grander scale, was a proposed project to erect a 50 metre/160 feet high sculpture of a white horse

BYFLEET

in Ebbsfleet Valley in the county. Designed by Mark Wallinger to faithfully resemble a thoroughbred horse, the structure would be visible from both the A2 road and High Speed 1 railway line, which cross each other nearby.

Kent’s flag being a simple white horse against a red background, the realisation of the design is open to wide interpretation. The horse depicted on the Flag Institute registry is a rather flamboyant illustration

KENT FLAG

but in practice the majority of commercially available Kent flags

COM,AV 1

appear to be based on the logo used by Kent County Council and are much simpler in stylisation as the following examples of the flag flying around the county demonstrate

KENT1.png

This flag has also been used in a sporting context and to identify locally made products

kent2

Both the shade of red of the background and placement of the horse emblem also vary to some degree. On the design of the Kent flag found on the registry, the horse is placed off centre, closer to the hoist, this is to allow the figure to appear at the centre when the flag is in a full gust of wind. Again, in practice most available flags do not observe this precise positioning and simply place the horse at the centre of the flag, as can be seen in these various examples  COM,AV 2Such varying stylisations, including one at left with the horse offset, are occasionally seen in flight

kent3

In 2011 it was the logo style version of the flag that flew outside the Eland House Headquarters of the Department For Communities and Local government in London,

DCLG KENT

Whilst the registry version of the horse is highly detailed, the logo style version is too simplistic and insubstantial; a happy medium is the version favoured on these pages ( available here )

BEST FLAG

which is taken from issue 92 of Flagmaster, the journal of the Flag Institute

FLAGMASTER (2)

and appears to have been based on the county arms that adorn the Kent County Council building in Maidstone.

FINAL

Useful Links

Kent

http://www.kentarchaeology.org.uk/Research/Pub/ArchCant/138-2017/Contents.htmhttp://www.kentarchaeology.org.uk/Research/Pub/ArchCant/138-2017/Contents.htmhttp://www.kentarchaeology.org.uk/Research/Pub/ArchCant/138-2017/Contents.htm

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